Law is a set of rules enforceable by social institutions. This includes courts and government. However, the concept of law is also applicable to private individuals. For example, a contract between two or more people creates an obligation by one of the parties to do something.
Generally, the law is enforced by governmental institutions, such as courts and legislatures. But some private institutions, such as companies, can create legal contracts. The law shapes our society, history and politics. Its application can be influenced by the constitutions of nations.
Law is a complex area of study, spanning almost every area of our lives. Some of the most common legal issues include housing, immigration, debt and consumer rights. These can all be a source of conflict or dispute, but some cases can be resolved without going to court.
Legal issues can arise from a number of situations, including unexpected illness, sudden events and problems at work. Sometimes it may be difficult to identify the underlying legal issue, so a lawyer may be necessary. In addition, a defendant can seek to change the court where the case is being heard.
While there is no single, clear definition of law, it generally falls into three categories. There is civil law, which is based on the rules of a particular country’s courts; there is criminal law, which focuses on the rights of the criminal and the legal process of the criminal; and there is religious law, which is explicitly based on religious precepts.
Civil law is a system of judicial decisions and legislative statutes that is typically less elaborate and shorter than criminal law. It is often governed by precedents, which are court decisions from a similar case. Precedent is usually binding on future decision-making by lower courts.
Criminal law primarily deals with felonies. A felony is a crime whose punishment is either imprisonment or death. Courts may choose to use the United States Sentencing Commission Guidelines to determine the appropriate punishment.
Common laws include family law, which covers marriage and divorce, personal injury law, consumer protection and property rights. Other common laws include nationality law, which addresses the rights of foreigners to live or work in a nation-state.
Regardless of the legal issue, it is important to note that justice is delivered by competent and impartial representatives. Ideally, the law will be framed by a political system that ensures equality before the law. If a law is found to be unconstitutional, it can be struck down by a court.
Usually, an accused person is given notice of a charge against them, and is asked to plead guilty or not guilty. Often, a defendant can seek to have the charges dropped. Nolo contendere, the same effect as a plea of guilty, is used if a person has been accused of a crime but is not yet convicted.
Justices are judicial officers in the Supreme Court of the U.S. or the highest courts in each state.