Automobiles are vehicles with an internal combustion engine fueled by fuels such as gasoline, diesel, and natural gas. They are the world’s largest industry and accounted for 73 million new automobiles manufactured in 2017.
The engine is an essential part of the car and provides it with the power needed to turn the wheels. It also controls many other parts of the car such as the drivetrain and the brakes. It is also important for the safety of passengers and pedestrians.
A car’s engine is a complex system with thousands of parts that work together to make the vehicle run. It consists of pistons, cylinders, tubes to deliver fuel to the cylinders, valves that open and close, and other components.
There are usually from four to eight cylinders in an automobile, but larger cars often have twelve cylinders for added power and smoothness. Each cylinder has its own function, like the human heart, and they are connected to each other in a chain, much as blood vessels are in a person’s circulatory system.
Most modern automobiles have a transmission to move the power from the engine to the wheels. The transmission can be a simple gearbox, a clutch, or a clutch-less automatic transmission.
The transmission is an important element of the engine because it allows the engine to turn the wheels without having to use a lot of energy. In addition to the transmission, the engine has other components that help it run smoothly and efficiently, including a starter motor, an alternator, a battery, and sensors.
Another important component of the engine is the crankshaft, which rotates the pistons and cylinders in the engine. It is a complex, intricate system that includes a large number of bearings and shafts that connect the crankshaft to the various other parts of the engine.
These bearings and shafts need to be strong enough to support the weight of the engine and to prevent them from slipping or crashing into each other. They are usually made of steel, but sometimes aluminum is used instead.
The front suspension is an important component of the car and helps to keep it stable on the road. Most modern automobiles feature an independent front suspension, where the two front tires are supported separately from each other, so that if one wheel hits a bump while the other wheel is in a dip, both will remain in contact with the road.
Other parts of the suspension include shock absorbers that reduce vibrations and help to improve the handling of the automobile. They are especially important on rough surfaces.
The body of the automobile is an important part of the car and provides room for passengers, storage, and houses the systems in the automobile. It is usually made from metals such as steel and aluminum, although fiberglass and plastic are used as well.
The modern automobile has many benefits, but it can also be dangerous to the environment and to people. It has caused pollution, degraded landscapes and produced traffic congestion. It has also killed many people in accidents.