The empirical study of religion must consider concepts of scientific truth and science. Social sciences and postpositivistic philosophy of science are both attacking the received view that religions cannot be studied scientifically. Religion is not reducible to a single category, but rather includes three dimensions. Among these dimensions are its origins, practice, and belief. Only a limited subset of these data can be studied scientifically.
Truth-function of religion
The concept of truth in religion is difficult to apply to all types of religious belief. Many philosophers talk about religion as a whole, but they talk differently about each type. For example, M. Muller argues that there is no one religion that is completely devoid of truth. This means that no religion can be said to be truthless or without error.
When studying religion, it is useful to take the view that there are different definitions of truth. For instance, historical truth is defined as the genesis and identity of a religious tradition. Doctrinal truth is a broader concept, and it refers to the existence of an institution or set of propositions that are mutually consistent.
Authenticity of religion
Authenticity of religion is a concept that distinguishes between genuine religious phenomena and pseudoreligious phenomena. Although there is no universally accepted definition of what constitutes an authentic religion, scholars have proposed criteria to judge whether a religious belief is genuine. A religion must be able to justify its authenticity in order to be protected by a nation-state.
An authentic religion is a product of God, and not a man-made creation. The fruits of Christianity are those of repentance, faith, and hope. In addition, a genuine religion teaches forgiveness, self-denial, and unselfishness.
Doctrinal verifiability of religion
A fundamental question in the philosophy of religion is whether religious beliefs are verifiable. The analytical philosophy of religion has no conclusive answer to this question. The logical positivist perspective argues that religious assertions are merely arbitrary statements of belief that have no true meaning. This claim is contradicted by the view of critical rationalism, which claims that religious assertions are essential non-falsifiable assertions.
The answer to this question depends on the kind of religion. Some religions are based on spiritual experiences that are inaccessible to human reason. This sort of religious experience is not a subject of intersubjective verification, whereas other religions depend on the authority of a divine founder to make their beliefs true.
Authenticity of religion in producing morally and spiritually recognizable saints
While the history of the Catholic Church is filled with saints who have devoted their lives to the Christian faith, there are also heresies that have challenged the tenets of the faith. Examples of these heresies include the Gnostics, Docetists, Jansenists, Quietists, and many others. Authentic religious experiences are therefore difficult to determine. However, these experiences have left a deep imprint on culture. Many pieces of art, literature, and dress codes have been influenced by religion. This imprint is also apparent in religious festivals, pilgrimages, and other rituals.
Function of religion in society
One of the central purposes of religion in society is to maintain social order. This is achieved through the teaching of morality and good citizenship. The Ten Commandments are a famous example of a moral code taught by religion. Religion also helps people to make decisions that will affect society. In the United States, religion has helped shape the culture and political life of the country.
The functions of religion in society vary greatly between societies. They may be positive or negative and depend on the society in which they exist. Sociological perspectives explore these consequences of religion.