Religion is a huge, global social phenomenon that is hard to define. It has many dimensions and is comprised of a variety of beliefs, practices, traditions, values, morals, and cultures. Despite its complexity, it seems to be a universal experience and need for most people on Earth. Some 5.4 billion people on the planet belong to a religion. Islam is the largest with 1.6 billion adherents, followed by Christianity with 2 billion followers and Hinduism with 900 million.
Scholars who have attempted to define religion have argued that it is a complex phenomenon and that there is no single criterion that distinguishes religion from nonreligion. Various definitions of religion have been proposed including Edward Tylor’s minimalism, Durkheim’s functional approach (belief in a supernatural being or group of beings), and Paul Tillich’s ultimate concern. These are monothetic approaches that fasten on a single defining property for the category of religion.
In recent decades, scholars have shifted away from these stipulative approaches and toward “polythetic” definitions that recognize multiple properties for the category of religion. While polythetic definitions may seem avant garde, treating a concept as a multifaceted complex is actually quite old and common in the study of human societies.
For example, the Christian theologian Augustine of Hippo (c. 354–c. 430) described his religion in terms of the three “pillars” of faith: fides, fiducia, and fidelitas. The Latin term fides translates as “faith,” but it is also used to refer to the process of assenting to and embracing something. This process is central to many religions.
A defining characteristic of religion is the existence of an ultimate goal or destiny for humans. This goal, which is referred to as eschatology, usually involves the afterlife or eternal life in some form. Religions offer believers a path to attaining their goals in the midst of an often painful and uncertain world.
The vast majority of religions have teachings on how to live a good and ethical life. These teachings generally focus on helping fellow humans, especially those who are in need. They can inspire a strong sense of morality, which leads to volunteerism, charitable activities, and other forms of community service. These activities are good for individuals, families, states, and nations, and they can reduce crime, delinquency, drug abuse, alcoholism, mental illness, health problems, and the occurrence of social pathologies such as out-of-wedlock births and poverty.
Most religions have rituals and ceremonies that illustrate their belief in a transcendent reality. These can include prayers, sermons, religious festivals, trancelike states, and other experiences. These rituals and ceremonies can be a source of deep and intense emotions and feelings. They can also inspire a feeling of oneness with those around you. They can even be a source of physical healing.
Studies show that religion has positive effects on individuals and society, including prosocial behavior, morality, self-control, less anxiety about death, and increased participation in civic organizations. However, there are also negative effects such as prejudice and discrimination, extremism, and violence.